In a medium bowl, whisk the flour, ginger, cinnamon, salt, nutmeg, cloves, baking soda. Set aside.
In a large bowl, beat together the butter and brown sugar until fluffy- this will take a little more work than normal since the butter is cold. Beat in the egg, molasses, and vanilla extract until combined- the mixture will be lumpy.
Slowly add in the flour mixture until completely incorporated. Don't be afraid to over-mix- you want the flour to be fully incorporated into the dough throughout.
Divide the dough roughly into thirds. Place each third between two pieces of parchment paper and roll it out until it is about 1/4 inch thick. Repeat with each third of dough. Stack the dough sheets, and place in the freezer for about 15-20 minutes.
While the dough chills, preheat the oven to 350 degrees and line to baking sheets with parchment paper. Remove one sheet of dough at a time. Use the cookie cutters of your choice, and place each cut cookie onto the prepared baking sheets. These cookies will not spread for you, so they can be pretty close together.
Bake for 8-10 minutes, or until the cookies look dry and lightly browned on the edges. Repeat with the remaining dough. You can knead the scraps together and re-roll several times if desired.
Cool cookies completely, and frost as desired. You can use a simple royal icing by whisking together one egg white with 1 cup of powdered sugar (or more to reach your desired consistency). Enjoy!